ZKSpace logoZKSpace

ZKSpace consists of three main parts: an AMM DEX utilizing ZK Rollups technology ZKSwap v3, a payment service called ZKSquare, and an NFT marketplace called ZKSea.
Value Locked

$2.87 M

16.28%

Canonically Bridged
$2.87 M
Externally Bridged
$0.00
Natively Minted
$0.00
  • Tokens
  • Daily TPS
    Coming soon
  • 30D tx count
    Coming soon
  • Stage
    Stage 0
  • Type
    ZK Rollup
  • Purposes
    NFT, AMM, Payments
  • ...

    ...

    Milestones

    Token Deposit Campaign started

    2022 Feb 21st

    Incentives program to onboard new users has started.

    Learn more

    ZKSpace launched

    2021 Dec 20th

    All-in-One Layer2 Platform ZKSpace, Featuring ZKSwap v3.0, NFTs, & Payments is launched.

    Learn more
    Risk summary
    Risk analysis
    Sequencer failureState validationData availabilityExit windowProposer failure

    State validation

    ZK proofs (SN)

    zkSNARKS are zero knowledge proofs that ensure state correctness, but require trusted setup.

    Data availability

    On chain

    All of the data needed for proof construction is published on chain.

    Exit window

    5d

    Users have 5d to exit funds in case of an unwanted upgrade. There is a 8d delay before an upgrade is applied, and withdrawals can take up to 3d to be processed.

    Sequencer failure

    Force via L1

    Users can force the sequencer to include a withdrawal transaction by submitting a request through L1. If the sequencer censors or is down for for more than 3d, users can use the exit hatch to withdraw their funds.

    Proposer failure

    Use escape hatch

    Users are able to trustlessly exit by submitting a zero knowledge proof of funds.

    Rollup stage
    ZKSpaceZKSpace is a
    Stage 0
    ZK Rollup.
    There is no available node software that can reconstruct the state from L1 data, hence there is no way to verify that this system is a rollup.
    Learn more about Rollup stages
    Please keep in mind that these stages do not reflect rollup security, this is an opinionated assessment of rollup maturity based on subjective criteria, created with a goal of incentivizing projects to push toward better decentralization. Each team may have taken different paths to achieve this goal.
    Technology

    Validity proofs ensure state correctness

    Each update to the system state must be accompanied by a ZK proof that ensures that the new state was derived by correctly applying a series of valid user transactions to the previous state. These proofs are then verified on Ethereum by a smart contract.

    1. ZKSwap Introduces Practical ZK Rollups - Medium blog

    Zero knowledge SNARK cryptography is used

    Despite their production use zkSNARKs are still new and experimental cryptography. Cryptography has made a lot of advancements in the recent years but all cryptographic solutions rely on time to prove their security. In addition zkSNARKs require a trusted setup to operate.

    • Funds can be stolen if the cryptography is broken or implemented incorrectly.

    1. ZKSpace Whitepaper

    All data required for proofs is published on chain

    All the data that is used to construct the system state is published on chain in the form of cheap calldata. This ensures that it will always be available when needed.

    1. ZKSwap Introduces Practical ZK Rollups - Medium blog
    Operator

    The system has a centralized operator

    The operator is the only entity that can propose blocks. A live and trustworthy operator is vital to the health of the system.

    • MEV can be extracted if the operator exploits their centralized position and frontruns user transactions.

    1. ZKSwap Validator - ZKSwap wiki

    Users can force exit the system

    Force exit allows the users to escape censorship by withdrawing their funds. The system allows users to force the withdrawal of funds by submitting a request directly to the contract on-chain. The request must be served within a defined time period. If this does not happen, the system will halt regular operation and permit trustless withdrawal of funds.

    • Users can be censored if the operator refuses to include their transactions. However, there exists a mechanism to independently exit the system.

    1. ZkSync.sol#L404 - ZKSwap source code
    Withdrawals

    Regular exit

    The user initiates the withdrawal by submitting a regular transaction on this chain. When the block containing that transaction is proven the funds become available for withdrawal on L1. Finally the user submits an L1 transaction to claim the funds. This transaction does not require a merkle proof.

    1. Make Transaction

    Forced exit

    If the user experiences censorship from the operator with regular exit they can submit their withdrawal requests directly on L1. The system is then obliged to service this request. Once the force operation is submitted and if the request is serviced, the operation follows the flow of a regular exit.

    1. ZkSync.sol#L404 - ZKSwap source code

    Emergency exit

    If the enough time deadline passes and the forced exit is still ignored the user can put the system into Exodus Mode, disallowing further state updates. In that case everybody can withdraw by submitting a zero knowledge proof of their funds with their L1 transaction.

    • Funds can be lost if the user is unable to generate the non-trivial ZK proof for exodus withdraw.

    1. ZkSyncCommitBlock.sol#L230-L246 - ZKSwap source code
    Permissions

    The system uses the following set of permissioned addresses:

    zkSpace Admin 0xfCAE…05Be

    This address is the master of Upgrade Gatekeeper contract, which is allowed to perform upgrades for Governance, Verifier, VerifierExit, PairManager, ZkSeaNFT and ZkSync contracts.

    Active validator 0x5bd9…41E2

    This actor is allowed to propose, revert and execute L2 blocks on L1. A list of active validators is kept inside Governance contract and can be updated by zkSpace Admin.

    Smart contracts
    A diagram of the smart contract architecture
    A diagram of the smart contract architecture

    The system consists of the following smart contracts:

    The main Rollup contract. Operator commits blocks, provides ZK proof which is validated by the Verifier contract and process withdrawals (executes blocks). Users deposit ETH and ERC20 tokens. This contract defines the upgrade delay in the UPGRADE_NOTICE_PERIOD constant that is currently set to 8 days. This contract can store any token.

    Can be upgraded by: zkSpace Admin

    Keeps a list of block producers and whitelisted tokens.

    Can be upgraded by: zkSpace Admin

    Manages trading pairs.

    Can be upgraded by: zkSpace Admin

    Contract managing deposits and withdrawals of NFTs to Layer2.

    Can be upgraded by: zkSpace Admin

    zkSNARK Plonk Verifier.

    Can be upgraded by: zkSpace Admin

    zkSNARK Verifier for the escape hatch.

    Can be upgraded by: zkSpace Admin

    UpgradeGatekeeper 0xB0C7…1390

    This is the contract that implements the upgrade mechanism for Governance, Verifier and ZkSync. It relies on the ZkSync contract to enforce upgrade delays.

    Value Locked is calculated based on these smart contracts and tokens:

    The current deployment carries some associated risks:

    • Funds can be stolen if a contract receives a malicious code upgrade. There is a 8d delay on code upgrades.

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