Linea logoLinea

Value Locked

$170 M


Canonically Bridged
$170 M (100%)
Externally Bridged
$0.00 (0%)
Natively Minted
$0.00 (0%)
  • Breakdown
  • Daily TPS
  • 30D tx count
    10.16 M
  • Stage
    Stage 0
  • Technology
    ZK Rollup
  • Purpose

  • Chart



    Choose token

    Canonically Bridged Tokens (Top 15)

    Ether (ETH)
    USD Coin (USDC)
    Wrapped liquid staked Ether 2.0 (wstETH)
    Wrapped BTC (WBTC)
    Tether USD (USDT)
    Dai Stablecoin (DAI)
    Kyber Network Crystal v2 (KNC)
    Symbiosis (SIS)
    ChainLink Token (LINK)
    Lido DAO Token (LDO)
    Gnosis Token (GNO)
    Pax Dollar (USDP)
    Maker (MKR)


    Mainnet Alpha Launch

    2023 Jul 12th

    Linea has launched on the Ethereum mainnet.

    Learn more

    Open Testnet is Live

    2023 Mar 28th

    Linea has launched on the Goerli testnet, allowing users and developers to test the platform.

    Learn more
    Show more


    The circuit of the program being proven is not public.

    Linea is a ZK Rollup powered by Consensys zkEVM, designed to scale the Ethereum network.

    If you find something wrong on this page you can submit an issue or edit the information.

    Risk analysis

    Sequencer failureState validationData availabilityUpgradeabilityProposer failure

    State validation

    ZK proofs (SN)

    zkSNARKS are zero knowledge proofs that ensure state correctness, but require trusted setup.

    Data availability

    On chain

    All of the data needed for proof construction is published on chain. Unlike most ZK rollups, transaction data is posted instead of state diffs.



    The code that secures the system can be changed arbitrarily and without notice.

    Sequencer failure

    No mechanism

    There is no mechanism to have transactions be included if the sequencer is down or censoring.

    Proposer failure

    Cannot withdraw

    Only the whitelisted proposers can publish state roots on L1, so in the event of failure the withdrawals are frozen.

    Rollup stage

    LineaLinea is a
    Stage 0
    ZK Rollup.
    There is no available node software that can reconstruct the state from L1 data, hence there is no way to verify that this system is a rollup.
    Learn more about Rollup stages
    Please keep in mind that these stages do not reflect rollup security, this is an opinionated assessment of rollup maturity based on subjective criteria, created with a goal of incentivizing projects to push toward better decentralization. Each team may have taken different paths to achieve this goal.


    Validity proofs ensure state correctness

    Each update to the system state must be accompanied by a ZK proof that ensures that the new state was derived by correctly applying a series of valid user transactions to the previous state. These proofs are then verified on Ethereum by a smart contract.

    1. ZkEvmV2.sol#L275 - Etherscan source code, _verifyProof() function

    All transaction data is recorded on chain

    All executed transactions are submitted to an on chain smart contract. The execution of the rollup is based entirely on the submitted transactions, so anyone monitoring the contract can know the correct state of the rollup chain.

    1. ZkEvmV2.sol#L221 - Etherscan source code, _processBlockTransactions() function


    The system has a centralized sequencer

    Only a trusted sequencer is allowed to submit transaction batches. A mechanism for users to submit their own batches is currently disabled.

    • MEV can be extracted if the operator exploits their centralized position and frontruns user transactions.

    • Funds can be frozen if the sequencer refuses to include an exit transaction (CRITICAL).

    1. ZkEvmV2.sol#L125 - Etherscan source code, onlyRole(OPERATOR_ROLE) modifier

    Users can't force any transaction

    There is no general mechanism to force the sequencer to include the transaction.

    • Users can be censored if the operator refuses to include their transactions.


    Regular exit

    The user initiates the withdrawal by submitting a regular transaction on this chain. When the block containing that transaction is proven the funds become available for withdrawal on L1. Finally the user submits an L1 transaction to claim the funds. This transaction does not require a merkle proof. Note that withdrawal requests can be censored by the Sequencer. Currently, there is a general limit of 6250.0 ETH that can be withdrawn within each 1d time window.

    • Funds can be frozen if the operator censors withdrawal transaction.

    1. L1MessageService.sol#L115 - Etherscan source code, claimMessage() function


    The system uses the following set of permissioned addresses:

    AdminMultisig 0x892b…1DD3

    Admin of the Linea rollup. It can upgrade core contracts, bridges, change the verifier address, and publish blocks by effectively overriding the proof system. This is a Gnosis Safe with 4 / 8 threshold.

    Those are the participants of the AdminMultisig.

    Operators 0x9228…Ad64

    The operators are allowed to prove blocks and post the corresponding transaction data.

    Smart contracts

    A diagram of the smart contract architecture
    A diagram of the smart contract architecture

    The system consists of the following smart contracts:

    The main contract of the Linea zkEVM rollup. Contains state roots, the verifier addresses and manages messages between L1 and the L2. The contract is pausable by 0x892bb7EeD71efB060ab90140e7825d8127991DD3. This contract stores the following tokens: ETH.

    Can be upgraded by: AdminMultisig

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    1. ZkEvmV2.sol#L275 - Etherscan source code, state injections: stateRoot and exitRoot are part of the validity proof input.
    PlonkVerifierFull 0x6312…6e1B

    Plonk verifier contract used by the Linea zkEVM rollup.

    PlonkVerifierFullLarge 0x2eDE…BEE0

    Plonk verifier contract used by the Linea zkEVM rollup.

    Contract used to bridge ERC20 tokens. This contract can store any token.

    Can be upgraded by: AdminMultisig

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    Contract used to bridge USDC tokens. This contract stores the following tokens: USDC.

    Can be upgraded by: AdminMultisig

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    Value Locked is calculated based on these smart contracts and tokens:

    The current deployment carries some associated risks:

    • Funds can be stolen if a contract receives a malicious code upgrade. There is a delay on code upgrades.