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Across V2 logoAcross V2

  • Total value locked
    $61.23 M44.30%
  • Destination
  • Validated by
  • Type
    Liquidity Network

  • ...


    Choose token

    Bridged Tokens (Top 15)

    Wrapped Ether (WETH)
    USD Coin (USDC)
    Wrapped BTC (WBTC)
    Dai Stablecoin (DAI)
    Tether USD (USDT)
    Balancer (BAL)
    UMA Voting Token v1 (UMA)
    Boba Token (BOBA)


    Across V2 is a cross-chain optimistic bridge that uses actors called Relayers to fulfill user transfer requests on the destination chain. Relayers are later reimbursed by providing a proof of their action to an Optimistic Oracle on Ethereum. The architecture leverages a single liquidity pool on Ethereum and separate deposit/reimburse pools on destination chains that are rebalanced using canonical bridges.

    If you find something wrong on this page you can submit an issue or edit the information.

    Risk summary

    Funds can be frozen if

    1. owner pauses the contract.
    Note: This project's overview requires more research and might not present accurate information. If you want to contribute you can edit the information on Github. Alternatively you contact the project team on Twitter and encourage them to contribute a PR.


    Principle of operation

    Note: This section requires more research and might not present accurate information.

    This bridge performs cross-chain swaps by borrowing liquidity from a network of Relayers who are then reimbursed on a chain of their choosing from a common liquidity pool (which consists of user deposits and deposits of independent Liquidity Providers). Specifically, when a user deposits funds for a swap into a dedicated pool on origin chain, a Relayer first pays the user on the requested destination chain and then shows proof of that deposit to Optimistic Oracle on Ethereum to be reimbursed. Liquidity used for reimbursements is rebalanced between a main pool on Ethereum (called Hub Pool) and pools on destination chains (called Spoke Pools) via native chain bridges.

    • Funds can be frozen if owner pauses the contract.

    • Funds can be lost if owner invokes a "haircut" functionality, dedicated for irrecoverable loss of funds on L2.

    1. Across V2 Architecture

    Validation via Optimistic Oracle

    Money from the liquidity pool is used to reimburse Relayers based on a proof of deposit on destination chain that is provided to Optimistic Oracle on Ethereum. The proof can be disputed in a configured time period.

    • Funds can be stolen if a false claim to the Optimistic Oracle is not disputed in time.

    • Funds can be lost if a re-org occurs on destination chain after Optimistic Oracle dispute time passes.

    1. Across V2 Optimistic Oracle documentation

    Destination tokens

    Only tokens that have been bridged using native chain bridges are supported.


    The system uses the following set of permissioned addresses:

    HubPool Multisig 0xB524…3715

    Can invoke admin functions of HubPool contract, and by implication of other contracts. This is a Gnosis Safe with 3 / 5 threshold.

    Those are the participants of the HubPool Multisig.

    BondToken transfer proposers 0xf7bA…997c

    Allowed to propose BondToken transfers

    Smart contracts

    The system consists of the following smart contracts:

    Escrow contract for ERC20 tokens and administration of other contracts. There is a 1h 30m delay before a bundle proposal is considered finalized. This contract stores the following tokens: USDC, WETH, WBTC, DAI, BAL, UMA, BOBA, USDT.

    BondToken 0xee1D…02ea

    Token used to bond the data worker for proposing Relayer refund bundles.

    LpTokenFactory 0x7dB6…fD9d
    GovernorV2 0x7b29…3fa8
    ProposerV2 0x50ef…E7cC
    VotingToken 0x04Fa…F828
    Optimism_Adapter 0xAd1b…246F
    Boba_Adapter 0x33B0…5Af3
    Arbitrum_Adapter 0x2952…543F
    ZkSync_Adapter 0xE233…47FB
    Base_Adapter 0x2d8B…046E
    Ethereum_Adapter 0x527E…5084

    This contract stores the following tokens: USDC, WETH, WBTC, DAI, BAL, UMA, BOBA, USDT.

    PolygonTokenBridger 0x48d9…2c65
    Polygon_Adapter 0x3E94…CE1A
    AcrossConfigStore 0x3B03…43f5

    Value Locked is calculated based on these smart contracts and tokens:

    Escrow for USDC, WETH, WBTC, DAI, BAL, UMA, BOBA, USDT 0xc186…bEda
    Escrow for USDC, WETH, WBTC, DAI, BAL, UMA, BOBA, USDT 0x5c7B…35C5Implementation (Upgradable)Admin

    Knowledge Nuggets