L2BEAT Bridges is a work in progress. You might find incomplete research or inconsistent naming. Join our discord to suggest improvements!

StarGate (LayerZero) logoStarGate (LayerZero)

StarGate is built on top of LayerZero protocol and is a liquidity network for cross-chain transfer for assets.
  • Total value locked
    $35.45 M27.44%
  • Destination
    Various
  • Validated by
    Third Party
  • Type
    Liquidity Network
  • ...

    Tokens

    Choose token

    Bridged Tokens (Top 15)

    Ether (ETH)
    USD Coin (USDC)
    Tether USD (USDT)
    mETH (mETH)
    Decentralized USD (USDD)
    Wootrade Network (WOO)
    Dai Stablecoin (DAI)
    Metis Token (Metis)
    Frax (FRAX)
    LUSD Stablecoin (LUSD)
    Detailed description

    StarGate is built on top of LayerZero protocol and is a liquidity network for cross-chain transfer for assets.

    It leverages an oracle and relayer for cross-chain security for the protocol. Note that StarGate UI also supports omnichain tokens built directly on top of LayerZero protocol, e.g. JOE.

    Risk summary
    This project includes unverified contracts. (CRITICAL)
    Technology

    Principle of operation

    StarGate is a Liquidity Network. It relies on liquidity providers to supply tokens to liquidity pools on each chain. Users can swap tokens between chains by transferring their tokens to a pool and receive token from the pool on the destination chain.

    Oracles and relayers

    Note: This section requires more research and might not present accurate information.

    StarGate is built on top of LayerZero protocol. LayerZero relies on oracles to periodically submit source chain block hashes to the destination chain. Once block hash is submitted, relayers can provide the merkle proof for the transfers / swaps.

    • Users can be censored if oracles or relayers fail to facilitate the transfer (CRITICAL).

    • Funds can be stolen if oracles and relayers collude to submit fraudulent block hash and relay fraudulent transfer (CRITICAL).

    Permissions

    The system uses the following set of permissioned addresses:

    StarGate Multisig 0x65bb…9705

    Bridge owner, can create new pools, chainpaths, set fees. This is a Gnosis Safe with 3 / 6 threshold.

    Used in:

    Project icon

    Those are the participants of the StarGate Multisig.

    LayerZero Multisig 0xCDa8…4C92

    The owner of Endpoint, UltraLightNode and Treasury contracts. Can switch to a new UltraLightNode for an Endpoint. Can switch proof library for an UltraLightNode and change Treasury. This is a Gnosis Safe with 2 / 5 threshold.

    Used in:

    Project icon
    Project icon

    Those are the participants of the LayerZero Multisig.

    LayerZero Relayer 0x902F…089E

    Contract authorized to relay messages and - as a result - withdraw funds from the bridge.

    Used in:

    Project icon
    LayerZero Relayer Admin owner 0x76F6…d6e5

    Can upgrade LayerZero relayer contract with no delay.

    LayerZero Oracle Admin owner 0x7B80…e6c8

    Can upgrade LayerZero oracle contract with no delay.

    Smart contracts
    Note: This section requires more research and might not present accurate information.

    The system consists of the following smart contracts on the host chain (Ethereum):

    Entry point for the user interaction with StarGate Bridge, handles the logic of swaps and adding liquidity, send messages to the bridge.

    Main bridge contract, receives messages from LayerZero Endpoint, stores bridge configuration.

    Factory contract managing all liquidity pools.

    The source code of some implementations is not verified on Etherscan.

    Proxy used in:

    Project icon
    Google Cloud Oracle 0xD56e…C7cc

    Implementation used in:

    Project icon

    The source code of some implementations is not verified on Etherscan.

    Proxy used in:

    Project icon
    Endpoint 0x66A7…d675

    LayerZero Ethereum Endpoint.

    Implementation used in:

    Project icon
    Project icon
    UltraLightNodeV2 0x4D73…78E2

    LayerZero UltraLight Node. Used by oracles to checkpoint source chain block hashes.

    Implementation used in:

    Project icon
    Project icon

    Value Locked is calculated based on these smart contracts and tokens:

    Escrow for USDC 0xdf07…FF56

    USDC Escrow

    Escrow for USDT 0x38EA…D783

    USDT Escrow

    Escrow for USDD 0x6929…374e

    USDD Escrow

    Escrow for DAI 0x0Faf…850d

    DAI Escrow

    Escrow for FRAX 0xfA0F…6e68

    FRAX Escrow

    Escrow for LUSD 0xE8F5…8CC2

    LUSD Escrow

    Escrow for Metis 0xd877…Da47

    METIS Escrow

    Escrow for USDT 0x430E…116d

    USDT Pool 2

    Escrow for WOO 0x1CE6…3A09

    WOO Pool

    Escrow for mETH 0xA572…618c

    mETH Pool

    The current deployment carries some associated risks:

    • Funds can be stolen if the source code of unverified contracts contains malicious code (CRITICAL).

    Knowledge Nuggets