Public Goods Network logoPublic Goods Network

Value Locked

$1.51 M


Canonically Bridged
$1.51 M (100%)
Externally Bridged
$0.00 (0%)
Natively Minted
$0.00 (0%)
  • Breakdown
  • Daily TPS
  • 30D tx count
    177 K
  • Stage
    Stage 0
  • Technology
    Optimistic Rollup
  • Purpose

  • Chart



    Choose token

    Canonically Bridged Tokens (Top 15)

    Ether (ETH)
    Dai Stablecoin (DAI)
    Tether USD (USDT)
    USD Coin (USDC)
    0x Protocol Token (ZRX)
    10Set Token (10SET)
    1INCH Token (1INCH)
    Aave Token (AAVE)
    agEUR (agEUR)
    Alchemix USD (alUSD)
    Alchemy (ACH) v2 (ALEPH)
    Amp (AMP)
    Ankr Network (ANKR)
    Anyswap (ANY)


    Public Goods Network Launch

    2023 Jul 6th

    The Public Goods Network is live on mainnet.

    Learn more
    Show more


    Fraud proof system is currently under development. Users need to trust the block proposer to submit correct L1 state roots.

    Public Goods Network is an OP stack chain focused on funding public goods.

    If you find something wrong on this page you can submit an issue or edit the information.

    Risk analysis

    Sequencer failureState validationData availabilityUpgradeabilityProposer failure

    State validation

    In development

    Currently the system permits invalid state roots. More details in project overview.

    Data availability

    On chain

    All of the data needed for proof construction is published on chain.



    The code that secures the system can be changed arbitrarily and without notice.

    Sequencer failure

    Self sequence

    In the event of a sequencer failure, users can force transactions to be included in the project’s chain by sending them to L1. There is a 12h delay on this operation.

    Proposer failure

    Cannot withdraw

    Only the whitelisted proposers can publish state roots on L1, so in the event of failure the withdrawals are frozen.

    Rollup stage

    Public Goods NetworkPublic Goods Network is a
    Stage 0
    Optimistic Rollup.
    Learn more about Rollup stages
    Please keep in mind that these stages do not reflect rollup security, this is an opinionated assessment of rollup maturity based on subjective criteria, created with a goal of incentivizing projects to push toward better decentralization. Each team may have taken different paths to achieve this goal.


    Fraud proofs are in development

    Ultimately, OP stack chains will use interactive fraud proofs to enforce state correctness. This feature is currently in development and the system permits invalid state roots.

    • Funds can be stolen if an invalid state root is submitted to the system (CRITICAL).

    1. L2OutputOracle.sol#L141 - Etherscan source code, deleteL2Outputs function

    All transaction data is recorded on chain

    All executed transactions are submitted to an on chain smart contract. The execution of the rollup is based entirely on the submitted transactions, so anyone monitoring the contract can know the correct state of the rollup chain.

    1. Derivation: Batch submission - OP Stack specs
    2. BatchInbox - Etherscan address
    3. OptimismPortal.sol#L434 - Etherscan source code, depositTransaction function


    The system has a centralized operator

    The operator is the only entity that can propose blocks. A live and trustworthy operator is vital to the health of the system.

    • MEV can be extracted if the operator exploits their centralized position and frontruns user transactions.

    1. L2OutputOracle.sol#30 - Etherscan source code, CHALLENGER address
    2. L2OutputOracle.sol#L35 - Etherscan source code, PROPOSER address
    3. Decentralizing the sequencer - OP Stack docs

    Users can force any transaction

    Because the state of the system is based on transactions submitted on-chain and anyone can submit their transactions there it allows the users to circumvent censorship by interacting with the smart contract directly.

    1. Sequencing Window - OP Stack specs
    2. OptimismPortal.sol#L434 - Etherscan source code, depositTransaction function


    Regular exit

    The user initiates the withdrawal by submitting a regular transaction on this chain. When the block containing that transaction is finalized the funds become available for withdrawal on L1. The process of block finalization usually takes several days to complete. Finally the user submits an L1 transaction to claim the funds. This transaction requires a merkle proof.

    • Funds can be frozen if the centralized validator goes down. Users cannot produce blocks themselves and exiting the system requires new block production (CRITICAL).

    1. OptimismPortal.sol#L242 - Etherscan source code, proveWithdrawalTransaction function
    2. OptimismPortal.sol#L325 - Etherscan source code, finalizeWithdrawalTransaction function
    3. L2OutputOracle.sol#L185 - Etherscan source code, PROPOSER check

    Forced exit

    If the user experiences censorship from the operator with regular exit they can submit their withdrawal requests directly on L1. The system is then obliged to service this request or halt all withdrawals, including forced withdrawals from L1 and regular withdrawals initated on L2. Once the force operation is submitted and if the request is serviced, the operation follows the flow of a regular exit.

    1. Forced withdrawal from an OP Stack blockchain

    Other considerations

    EVM compatible smart contracts are supported

    OP stack chains are pursuing the EVM Equivalence model. No changes to smart contracts are required regardless of the language they are written in, i.e. anything deployed on L1 can be deployed on L2.

    1. Introducing EVM Equivalence


    The system uses the following set of permissioned addresses:

    PGNMultisig 0x4a49…A746

    This address is the owner of the following contracts: SystemConfig, ProxyAdmin. It can upgrade the bridge implementation potentially gaining access to all funds, and change the sequencer, state root proposer or any other system component (unlimited upgrade power). This is a Gnosis Safe with 3 / 5 threshold.

    Those are the participants of the PGNMultisig.

    GuardianMultisig 0x39E1…5f84

    This address is the permissioned challenger of the system. It can delete non finalized roots without going through the fault proof process. It is also designated as a Guardian of the OptimismPortal, meaning it can halt withdrawals. This is a Gnosis Safe with 3 / 6 threshold.

    Those are the participants of the GuardianMultisig.

    ProxyAdmin 0xc6A8…4cc4

    Owner of AddressManager. Admin of OptimismPortal, SystemConfig, L2OutputOracle, L1StandardBridge.

    Sequencer 0x9952…e167

    Central actor allowed to commit L2 transactions to L1.

    Proposer 0x6996…cFe3

    Central actor allowed to post new L2 state roots to L1.

    Challenger 0x39E1…5f84

    Central actor allowed to delete L2 state roots proposed by a Proposer.

    Guardian 0x39E1…5f84

    Central actor allowed to pause deposits and withdrawals.

    Smart contracts

    A diagram of the smart contract architecture
    A diagram of the smart contract architecture

    The system consists of the following smart contracts:

    The L2OutputOracle contract contains a list of proposed state roots which Proposers assert to be a result of block execution. Currently only the PROPOSER address can submit new state roots.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    The OptimismPortal contract is the main entry point to deposit funds from L1 to L2. It also allows to prove and finalize withdrawals. This contract stores the following tokens: ETH.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    It contains configuration parameters such as the Sequencer address, the L2 gas limit and the unsafe block signer address.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    The L1CrossDomainMessenger (L1xDM) contract sends messages from L1 to L2, and relays messages from L2 onto L1. In the event that a message sent from L1 to L2 is rejected for exceeding the L2 epoch gas limit, it can be resubmitted via this contract’s replay function.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    Value Locked is calculated based on these smart contracts and tokens:

    Main entry point for users depositing ERC20 tokens that do not require custom gateway.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    Main entry point for users depositing ETH.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    The current deployment carries some associated risks:

    • Funds can be stolen if a contract receives a malicious code upgrade. There is no delay on code upgrades (CRITICAL).

    Knowledge nuggets