IMX Token introduced
2022 Jun 29th
Immutable announce IMX, the native ERC-20 utility token of Immutable X.Learn more
Trading is live on Immutable X Marketplace
2021 Apr 8th
Immutable has launched the first phase of its Layer 2 scaling protocol.Learn more
Immutable X claims to be the first Layer 2 for NFTs on Ethereum. It promises zero gas fees, instant trades and scalability for games, applications, marketplaces, without compromise.
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ZK-STARKS are zero knowledge proofs that ensure state correctness.
Proof construction relies fully on data that is NOT published on chain. There exists a data availability committee (DAC) that is tasked with protecting and supplying the data.
The code that secures the system can be changed arbitrarily but users have some time to react.
Users can force the sequencer to include a withdrawal transaction by submitting a request through L1. If the sequencer censors or is down for for more than 7d, users can use the exit hatch to withdraw their funds.
Users are able to trustlessly exit by submitting a Merkle proof of funds. NFTs will be minted on L1 to exit.
Each update to the system state must be accompanied by a ZK Proof that ensures that the new state was derived by correctly applying a series of valid user transactions to the previous state. Once the proof is processed on the Ethereum blockchain the L2 block is instantly finalized. The system state is represented using Merkle roots.
Despite their production use ZK-STARKs proof systems are still relatively new, complex and they rely on the proper implementation of the polynomial constraints used to check validity of the Execution Trace.
Funds can be lost if the proof system is implemented incorrectly.
The balances of the users are not published on-chain, but rather sent to several well known and trusted parties, also known as committee members. A state update is valid and accepted on-chain only if at least a quorum of the committee members sign a state update.
Funds can be lost if the external data becomes unavailable (CRITICAL).
Users can be censored if the committee restricts their access to the external data.
The operator is the only entity that can propose blocks. A live and trustworthy operator is vital to the health of the system. Typically, the Operator is the hot wallet of the StarkEx service submitting state updates for which proofs have been already submitted and verified.
MEV can be extracted if the operator exploits their centralized position and frontruns user transactions.
Force exit allows the users to escape censorship by withdrawing their funds. The system allows users to force the withdrawal of funds by submitting a request directly to the contract on-chain. The request must be served within a defined time period. If this does not happen, the system will halt regular operation and permit trustless withdrawal of funds.
Users can be censored if the operator refuses to include their transactions. They can still exit the system.
The user initiates the withdrawal by submitting a transaction on L2. When the block containing that transaction is proven the funds become available for withdrawal on L1. Finally the user submits an L1 transaction to claim the funds. This transaction does not require a merkle proof. When withdrawing NFTs they are minted on L1.
If the user experiences censorship from the operator with regular exit they can submit their withdrawal requests directly on L1. The system is then obliged to service this request. Once the force operation is submitted if the request is serviced the operation follows the flow of a regular exit.
If enough time passes and the forced exit is still ignored the user can put the system into a frozen state, disallowing further state updates. In that case everybody can withdraw by submitting a merkle proof of their funds with their L1 transaction.
Can upgrade implementation of the system, potentially gaining access to all funds stored in the bridge. Currently there is 14d delay before the upgrade.
Validity proof must be signed by at least 5 of these addresses to approve state update.
Can upgrade implementation of SHARP Verifier, potentially with code approving fraudulent state. Currently there is 28d delay before the upgrade.
SHARP Verifier Governor. This is a Gnosis Safe with 2 / 3 threshold.
Those are the participants of the SHARPVerifierGovernorMultisig.
Allowed to update the state. When the Operator is down the state cannot be updated.
This contract stores the following tokens: ETH, IMX, USDC, OMI.
Data Availability Committee (DAC) contract verifying data availability claim from DAC Members (via multisig check).
CallProxy for GpsStatementVerifier.
Starkware SHARP verifier used collectively by Starknet, Sorare, ImmutableX, Apex, Myria, rhino.fi and Canvas Connect. It receives STARK proofs from the Prover attesting to the integrity of the Execution Trace of these Programs including correctly computed L2 state root which is part of the Program Output.
Part of STARK Verifier.
Part of STARK Verifier.
MemoryPageFactRegistry is one of the many contracts used by SHARP verifier. This one is important as it registers all necessary on-chain data.
Part of STARK Verifier.
Main StarkEx contract, used also as an escrow.
The current deployment carries some associated risks:
Funds can be stolen if a contract receives a malicious code upgrade. There is a 14d delay on code upgrades.