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Value Locked

$6.14 M


Canonically Bridged
$6.14 M (100%)
Externally Bridged
$0.00 (0%)
Natively Minted
$0.00 (0%)
  • Breakdown
  • Daily TPS
  • 30D tx count
    2.37 M
  • Stage
    Stage 0
  • Technology
    Optimistic Rollup
  • Purpose
    Universal, NFTs

  • ...

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    Zora Network Launch

    2023 Jun 21st

    Zora Network is live on mainnet.

    Learn more
    Show more


    Fraud proof system is currently under development. Users need to trust the block proposer to submit correct L1 state roots.

    Zora is a fast, cost-efficient, and scalable Layer 2 built to help bring media onchain, powered by the OP Stack.

    If you find something wrong on this page you can submit an issue or edit the information.

    Risk Analysis

    Sequencer failureState validationData availabilityUpgradeabilityProposer failure

    State validation

    In development

    Currently the system permits invalid state roots. More details in project overview.

    Data availability

    On chain

    All of the data needed for proof construction is published on chain.



    The code that secures the system can be changed arbitrarily and without notice.

    Sequencer failure

    Self sequence

    In the event of a sequencer failure, users can force transactions to be included in the project’s chain by sending them to L1. There is a 12h delay on this operation.

    Proposer failure

    Cannot withdraw

    Only the whitelisted proposers can publish state roots on L1, so in the event of failure the withdrawals are frozen.

    Rollup stage

    ZoraZora is aStage 0Optimistic Rollup.
    Learn more about Rollup stages
    Please keep in mind that these stages do not reflect rollup security, this is an opinionated assessment of rollup maturity based on subjective criteria, created with a goal of incentivizing projects to push toward better decentralization. Each team may have taken different paths to achieve this goal.


    Fraud proofs are in development

    Ultimately, OP stack chains will use interactive fraud proofs to enforce state correctness. This feature is currently in development and the system permits invalid state roots.

    • Funds can be stolen if an invalid state root is submitted to the system (CRITICAL).

    1. L2OutputOracle.sol#L141 - Etherscan source code, deleteL2Outputs function

    All transaction data is recorded on chain

    All executed transactions are submitted to an on chain smart contract. The execution of the rollup is based entirely on the submitted transactions, so anyone monitoring the contract can know the correct state of the rollup chain.

    1. Derivation: Batch submission - OP Stack specs
    2. BatchInbox - Etherscan address
    3. OptimismPortal.sol#L434 - Etherscan source code, depositTransaction function


    The system has a centralized operator

    The operator is the only entity that can propose blocks. A live and trustworthy operator is vital to the health of the system.

    • MEV can be extracted if the operator exploits their centralized position and frontruns user transactions.

    1. L2OutputOracle.sol#L30 - Etherscan source code, CHALLENGER address
    2. L2OutputOracle.sol#L35 - Etherscan source code, PROPOSER address
    3. Decentralizing the sequencer - OP Stack docs

    Users can force any transaction

    Because the state of the system is based on transactions submitted on-chain and anyone can submit their transactions there it allows the users to circumvent censorship by interacting with the smart contract directly.

    1. Sequencing Window - OP Stack specs
    2. OptimismPortal.sol#L434 - Etherscan source code, depositTransaction function


    Regular exit

    The user initiates the withdrawal by submitting a regular transaction on this chain. When the block containing that transaction is finalized the funds become available for withdrawal on L1. The process of block finalization usually takes several days to complete. Finally the user submits an L1 transaction to claim the funds. This transaction requires a merkle proof.

    • Funds can be frozen if the centralized validator goes down. Users cannot produce blocks themselves and exiting the system requires new block production (CRITICAL).

    1. OptimismPortal.sol#L242 - Etherscan source code, proveWithdrawalTransaction function
    2. OptimismPortal.sol#L325 - Etherscan source code, finalizeWithdrawalTransaction function
    3. L2OutputOracle.sol#L185 - Etherscan source code, PROPOSER check

    Other considerations

    EVM compatible smart contracts are supported

    OP stack chains are pursuing the EVM Equivalence model. No changes to smart contracts are required regardless of the language they are written in, i.e. anything deployed on L1 can be deployed on L2.

    1. Introducing EVM Equivalence


    The system uses the following set of permissioned addresses:

    ZoraMultisig 0xC72a…0542

    This address is the owner of the following contracts: ProxyAdmin, SystemConfig. It is also designated as a Guardian of the OptimismPortal, meaning it can halt withdrawals. It can upgrade the bridge implementation potentially gaining access to all funds, and change the sequencer, state root proposer or any other system component (unlimited upgrade power). This is a Gnosis Safe with 4 / 6 threshold.

    Those are the participants of the ZoraMultisig.

    ChallengerMultisig 0xcA45…Dc72

    This address is the permissioned challenger of the system. It can delete non finalized roots without going through the fault proof process. This is a Gnosis Safe with 4 / 6 threshold.

    Those are the participants of the ChallengerMultisig.

    ProxyAdmin 0xD4ef…3b49

    Admin of the OptimismPortal, L1ERC721Bridge, L2OutputOracle, SystemConfig, OptimismMintableERC20Factory, L1StandardBridge, AddressManager proxies. It’s controlled by the ZoraMultisig.

    Sequencer 0x6257…9033

    Central actor allowed to commit L2 transactions to L1

    Proposer 0x4824…88Dd

    Central actor allowed to post new L2 state roots to L1

    Smart Contracts

    A diagram of the smart contract architecture
    A diagram of the smart contract architecture

    The system consists of the following smart contracts:

    The L2OutputOracle contract contains a list of proposed state roots which Proposers assert to be a result of block execution. Currently only the PROPOSER address can submit new state roots.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    The OptimismPortal contract is the main entry point to deposit funds from L1 to L2. It also allows to prove and finalize withdrawals. This contract stores the following tokens: ETH.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    It contains configuration parameters such as the Sequencer address, the L2 gas limit and the unsafe block signer address.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    The L1ERC721Bridge contract is the main entry point to deposit ERC721 tokens from L1 to L2.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    The L1 Cross Domain Messenger contract sends messages from L1 to L2, and relays messages from L2 onto L1. In the event that a message sent from L1 to L2 is rejected for exceeding the L2 epoch gas limit, it can be resubmitted via this contract’s replay function.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    Value Locked is calculated based on these smart contracts and tokens:

    Main entry point for users depositing ERC20 token that do not require custom gateway.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    Main entry point for users depositing ETH.

    Can be upgraded by: ProxyAdmin

    Upgrade delay: No delay

    The current deployment carries some associated risks:

    • Funds can be stolen if a contract receives a malicious code upgrade. There is no delay on code upgrades (CRITICAL).

    Knowledge Nuggets