Risk Analysis

No.NameState validationData availabilityUpgradeabilitySequencer failureValidator failure
1.Arbitrum One logoArbitrum OneFraud proofs (INT)On chainYesTransact using L1No mechanism
2.Optimism logoOptimismIn developmentOn chainYesTransact using L1No mechanism
3.dYdX logodYdXZK proofs (ST)On chainYesForce trade/exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
4.Loopring logoLoopringZK proofs (SN)On chainYesForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
5.Metis Andromeda logoMetis AndromedaIn developmentExternal (MEMO)YesTransact using L1No mechanism
6.zkSync logozkSyncZK proofs (SN)On chain21d or no delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (ZK)
7.Immutable X logoImmutable XZK proofs (ST)External (DAC)14 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
8.ZKSpace logoZKSpaceZK proofs (SN)On chain8 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (ZK)
9.Boba Network logoBoba NetworkIn developmentOn chainYesTransact using L1No mechanism
10.rhino.fi logorhino.fiZK proofs (ST)External (DAC)14 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
11.Sorare logoSorareZK proofs (ST)External (DAC)14 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
12.Aztec Connect logoAztec ConnectZK proofs (SN)On chainYesPropose blocks (ZK)Propose blocks (ZK)
13.ApeX logoApeXZK proofs (ST)ExternalYesForce trade/exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
14.Arbitrum Nova logoArbitrum NovaFraud proofs (INT)External (DAC)YesTransact using L1No mechanism
15.Aztec logoAztecZK proofs (SN)On chainYesPropose blocks (ZK)Propose blocks (ZK)
16.OMG Network logoOMG NetworkExits onlyExternalYesExit to L1Escape hatch (?)
17.ZKSwap 1.0 logoZKSwap 1.0ZK proofs (SN)On chain8 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (ZK)
18.StarkNet logoStarkNetZK proofs (ST)On chainYesNo mechanismNo mechanism
19.Polygon Hermez logoPolygon HermezZK proofs (SN)On chain7 days delayForce exit to L1Propose blocks (ZK)
20.ZKSwap 2.0 logoZKSwap 2.0ZK proofs (SN)On chain8 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (ZK)
21.Layer2.Finance logoLayer2.FinanceFraud proofs (1R)On chainNoNo mechanismNo mechanism
22.Myria logoMyriaZK proofs (ST)External (DAC)YesForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
23.Gluon logoGluonFraud proofs (!)ExternalYesExit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
24.Layer2.Finance-zk logoLayer2.Finance-zkZK proofs (ST)External (DAC)0 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
25.Fuel v1 logoFuel v1Fraud proofs (1R)On chainNoPropose blocksPropose blocks

This project is built using StarkEx.

This project is based on Optimism's code base.

This project is based on zkSync's code base.

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About L2BEAT

L2BEAT is an analytics and research website about Ethereum layer two (L2) scaling. We provide a comparison of the various Ethereum L2 systems available today.

An important differentiator between L2BEAT and similar sites is that L2BEAT is committed to educating users and lists only projects that match our narrow definition of L2. We define layer two as a chain that fully or partially derives its security from layer one Ethereum so that users do not have to rely on the honesty of L2 validators for the security of their funds.

Because of our commitment to education we present various non-trivial metrics aside from Total Value Locked (TVL). We have carefully examined each L2 project to determine the inner workings of their technology as well as the associated risks. To learn about any of our listed projects visit their respective page on L2BEAT.

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