Risk Analysis


#NameState validationData availabilityUpgradeabilitySequencer failureValidator failure
1Arbitrum One logoArbitrum OneFraud proofs (INT)On chainYesTransact using L1Propose blocks
2Optimism logoOptimismIn developmentOn chainYesTransact using L1No mechanism
3dYdX logodYdXZK proofs (ST)On chainYesForce trade/exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
4Loopring logoLoopringZK proofs (SN)On chainYesForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
5Metis Andromeda logoMetis AndromedaIn developmentOptimistic (MEMO)YesTransact using L1No mechanism
6Immutable X logoImmutable XZK proofs (ST)External (DAC)14 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
7zkSync logozkSyncZK proofs (SN)On chain21d or no delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (ZK)
8ZKSpace logoZKSpaceZK proofs (SN)On chain8 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (ZK)
9Sorare logoSorareZK proofs (ST)External (DAC)14 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
10rhino.fi logorhino.fiZK proofs (ST)External (DAC)14 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
11Boba Network logoBoba NetworkIn developmentOn chainYesTransact using L1No mechanism
12ApeX logoApeXZK proofs (ST)ExternalYesForce trade/exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
13Aztec Connect logoAztec ConnectZK proofs (SN)On chainYesPropose blocks (ZK)Propose blocks (ZK)
14Arbitrum Nova logoArbitrum NovaFraud proofs (INT)External (DAC)YesTransact using L1Propose blocks
15StarkNet logoStarkNetZK proofs (ST)On chainYesNo mechanismNo mechanism
OMG Network logoOMG NetworkExits onlyExternalYesExit to L1Escape hatch (?)
17Aztec logoAztecZK proofs (SN)On chainYesPropose blocks (ZK)Propose blocks (ZK)
ZKSwap 1.0 logoZKSwap 1.0ZK proofs (SN)On chain8 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (ZK)
19Polygon Hermez logoPolygon HermezZK proofs (SN)On chain7 days delayForce exit to L1Propose blocks (ZK)
ZKSwap 2.0 logoZKSwap 2.0ZK proofs (SN)On chain8 days delayForce exit to L1Escape hatch (ZK)
21Layer2.Finance logoLayer2.FinanceFraud proofs (1R)On chainNoNo mechanismNo mechanism
22Myria logoMyriaZK proofs (ST)External (DAC)YesForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
23Gluon logoGluonFraud proofs (!)ExternalYesExit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
Layer2.Finance-zk logoLayer2.Finance-zkZK proofs (ST)External (DAC)YesForce exit to L1Escape hatch (MP)
25Fuel v1 logoFuel v1Fraud proofs (1R)On chainNoPropose blocksPropose blocks

This project is built using StarkEx.

This project is based on Optimism's code base.

This project is based on zkSync's code base.

About L2BEAT

L2BEAT is an analytics and research website about Ethereum layer two (L2) scaling. We provide a comparison of the various Ethereum L2 systems available today.

An important differentiator between L2BEAT and similar sites is that L2BEAT is committed to educating users and lists only projects that match our narrow definition of L2. We define layer two as a chain that fully or partially derives its security from layer one Ethereum so that users do not have to rely on the honesty of L2 validators for the security of their funds.

Because of our commitment to education we present various non-trivial metrics aside from Total Value Locked (TVL). We have carefully examined each L2 project to determine the inner workings of their technology as well as the associated risks. To learn about any of our listed projects visit their respective page on L2BEAT.

We have also compiled a list of Frequently Asked Questions that will help explain some of the decisions we made for our site. We hope you find L2BEAT a valuable resource.