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Risk Analysis


#NameState validationData availabilityUpgradeabilitySequencer failureValidator failure
1Arbitrum One logoArbitrum One
Fraud proofs (INT)
On chain
Yes
Transact using L1
Propose blocks
2Optimism logoOptimism
In development
On chain
Yes
Transact using L1
No mechanism
3dYdX logodYdX
ZK proofs (ST)
On chain
Yes
Force trade/exit to L1
Escape hatch (MP)
4Metis Andromeda logoMetis Andromeda
In development
Optimistic (MEMO)
Yes
Transact using L1
No mechanism
5Loopring logoLoopring
ZK proofs (SN)
On chain
Yes
Force exit to L1
Escape hatch (MP)
6Immutable X logoImmutable X
ZK proofs (ST)
External (DAC)
14 days delay
Force exit to L1
Escape hatch (MP)
7zkSync logozkSync
ZK proofs (SN)
On chain
21d or no delay
Force exit to L1
Escape hatch (ZK)
8ZKSpace logoZKSpace
ZK proofs (SN)
On chain
8 days delay
Force exit to L1
Escape hatch (ZK)
9ApeX logoApeX
ZK proofs (ST)
External
Yes
Force trade/exit to L1
Escape hatch (MP)
10Sorare logoSorare
ZK proofs (ST)
External (DAC)
14 days delay
Force exit to L1
Escape hatch (MP)
11rhino.fi logorhino.fi
ZK proofs (ST)
External (DAC)
14 days delay
Force exit to L1
Escape hatch (MP)
12Boba Network logoBoba Network
In development
On chain
Yes
Transact using L1
No mechanism
13Aztec Connect logoAztec Connect
ZK proofs (SN)
On chain
Yes
Propose blocks (ZK)
Propose blocks (ZK)
14Arbitrum Nova logoArbitrum Nova
Fraud proofs (INT)
External (DAC)
Yes
Transact using L1
Propose blocks
15StarkNet logoStarkNet
ZK proofs (ST)
On chain
Yes
No mechanism
No mechanism
16Aztec logoAztec
ZK proofs (SN)
On chain
Yes
Propose blocks (ZK)
Propose blocks (ZK)
ZKSwap 1.0 logoZKSwap 1.0
ZK proofs (SN)
On chain
8 days delay
Force exit to L1
Escape hatch (ZK)
18Polygon Hermez logoPolygon Hermez
ZK proofs (SN)
On chain
7 days delay
Force exit to L1
Propose blocks (ZK)
ZKSwap 2.0 logoZKSwap 2.0
ZK proofs (SN)
On chain
8 days delay
Force exit to L1
Escape hatch (ZK)
20Layer2.Finance logoLayer2.Finance
Fraud proofs (1R)
On chain
No
No mechanism
No mechanism
21Myria logoMyria
ZK proofs (ST)
External (DAC)
Yes
Force exit to L1
Escape hatch (MP)
22Gluon logoGluon
Fraud proofs (!)
External
Yes
Exit to L1
Escape hatch (MP)
OMG Network logoOMG Network
Exits only
External
Yes
Exit to L1
Escape hatch (?)
Layer2.Finance-zk logoLayer2.Finance-zk
ZK proofs (ST)
External (DAC)
Yes
Force exit to L1
Escape hatch (MP)
25zkSync 2.0 logozkSync 2.0
ZK proofs (SN)
On chain
Yes
No mechanism
No mechanism
26Fuel v1 logoFuel v1
Fraud proofs (1R)
On chain
No
Propose blocks
Propose blocks

This project is built using StarkEx.

This project is based on Optimism's code base.

This project is based on zkSync's code base.

About L2BEAT

L2BEAT is an analytics and research website about Ethereum layer two (L2) scaling. We provide a comparison of the various Ethereum L2 systems available today.

An important differentiator between L2BEAT and similar sites is that L2BEAT is committed to educating users and lists only projects that match our narrow definition of L2. We define layer two as a chain that fully or partially derives its security from layer one Ethereum so that users do not have to rely on the honesty of L2 validators for the security of their funds.

Because of our commitment to education we present various non-trivial metrics aside from Total Value Locked (TVL). We have carefully examined each L2 project to determine the inner workings of their technology as well as the associated risks. To learn about any of our listed projects visit their respective page on L2BEAT.

We have also compiled a list of Frequently Asked Questions that will help explain some of the decisions we made for our site. We hope you find L2BEAT a valuable resource.